֥롼ץ

֤ʤͤΤ夲ԥݥȸǧչȻкֺ¡ʡˤ񤭽

ط񤭻Ϥ᤿ϢεȤꤢޤ

Ūˤϡ ǧդο ط 3Ĥ˴ؤƤϼ̣ǤϤ뤬Ǥꡤ˻ž夬äΤǤϤʤȡʤϽꤵ뤫ɤˡ

ȤΤϤޤޥʡʤȤϤ ǾзΤϤäޤȤƤˡ

äȤޤȤ᤿櫓ǤϤʤΤǡäƤǽ롣

ϭ ˡޤȤ᤿ݤŬäƤȻפΤ䤬˶ռʤΤǡ夲ƤʤȤǤʻäΤκۤ뤿˽񤯤ǤϤ뤬ˡ

˻ͤˤ褦ȻפäƤͤʤ顤ޤǤʤȤƻȤΤȡϤͽˡ

Ǥϡ󡤸ǧջĥޤ礦


㥪ޥ
Ȥäʻʻк򤷤Ƥͤư褬ä

Τ礦ͤ⤤뤫ȻפäΤŽäƤ

ξ硤񤭹ߤޤäƤΤϡظǧոǤԹֽƥȡ١ʶǡˤˤʤ롣

ϥ֥롼ץȤФƤΤǡƥȤ濴ˤĤġΥƥȤˤϺܤäƤʤΤΥ֥롼ץȤˤϺܤäƤ֤áפѸ⤪ƤɬפȤϻפΤʤϡ֥롼ץȥ꡼ˤޤȤƤˡ

ؤޤءʥޥˡڥ֥롼ץȡۡʽ 4 21 Τι¤ȵǽڤӼ 1˿ȵǽι¤ڤӤޤޤʼ¤Ⱦ㳲2˿Ūٱ礬ɬפʼʼ

21
ظǧջ ʿ30ǯǡ١ʰ̺ˡ ܿ󥿡ˤ

ϫǤȤ򥪥ޥǽ񤤤ƤߤˤäƻΤޤȤǤϿʤȻפΤǥ֥롼ץȤβͭ̾ɤȸǤԹֽƥȤΥܤǺʾСˡ

1˿ȵǽι¤ڤӤޤޤʼ¤Ⱦ㳲

Τﹽ¤ȵǽ
ȤϡΤƴﴱβ˶ŪȿŪ¤Ӥǽ () ΤȤǤ롥

ȼѲȤơ̤ǤϹѲ (̸ɡޡ׸̤θ̤θ)ɷϤƵ۴ϤѲ (ư̮Ų̤θٳ̤θ)γдﴱϤѲ̻㲼徽Τβ˻Τκİ㲼 (ȿβ㲼) ͤʤɤꡤǽǤǾΰǧεǽ㲼û㲼ήưǽ㲼ӷ뾽ǽθʤɤ󤲤롥

㶶ȡ
뾽ǽϸ夷Ƥ롣

ޤˤ, Ƭ륰äƤ褦˴뎢žޤȡ饰餹륿פ žޤ 뤤 ưޤ 롥

մȤϡ֤ɤ롤ϤʤϤʤ Τ褦ɽǧŪŪŪʼŪФǡͥ륮ʤʤäƤ֤Ǥ롥

ƵۺȤ, ƵۤŤ餤 ©ͤޤ봶 ۤʤ ʤɤξɾ򤤤

۴ĴȤϡ˿¡ɤ˴ؤΤȤǡ (ɡڹ)찵̮ʤɤɽŪʼǤ롥

ʬռȤϡʬ (ۥ) ΰ۾ˤäƵǡǢþǽʾɡ㲼ʤɤ롥

㶶ȡ
þǽʾɡ㲼ɤ⡤ȯ롣μȤμ򸲤ˤȤȸꤹʤ餳ǤϤʤ

Ƶ۴ϼȤϡɻ١١ʤɤθƵ۴μǡɻٱꡤٱꡤ٤ĺټʤɤ롥

㶶ȡ
ϡѸʸѸΤȤؤѥʤΤǤϤʤȡ

ʤּפʾɸˤΤΤɽΤΤȤ롣ȯǮϫåʤΤΡˡޤƵۺưة벼㳲ΡʤɶɽΤΤǤ줾Ūʤ뤤϶ɽ¡ȿꤵ롣סʸǧոǤԹֽƥ p.129

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹p. 90

мȤϡз (ǾԿ) ǡǾɾ㳲ѡ󥽥ԿǾɡ󡦥Х졼ɸʤɤ롥

ڡʷϼȤϡӤʤɱưﴱμǡޡꥦޥʤɤ롥

2˿Ūٱ礬ɬפʼʼ

ϰΤ򼨤 ˦ȯ٤ɤIJ󡤭 ¤狼ȯ¡Ѽ𡤹, ʤɤ˦ȯʤɤ롥

¿ϸ狼餺ޤˡΩƤʤᡤ饤ȡ²԰¤礭ΤῴŪٱ礬פȤ롥

㶶ȡ
2014ʿ26ǯ¤δԤФ˴ؤˡΧˡˤäơ줿Ȥϡȯ¤ε餫ǤʤˡΩƤʤʼǤäơĹܤɬפȤΤ򤤤ΤԤ֤ƤߤɼŬڤʰŤγݤޤɬ⤤ǡԿ͸0.1̤ǤäơҴŪʿǴΩƤΤȤưоݤȤƤ2017ʿ29ǯ330)㳲ٱˡˤƤϡȯ¤ε餫ǤʤȡԿ͸0.1̤Ǥ뤳ȤȤƤʤΤǡ2017ʿ29ǯߤ358¤оݼ¤ȤƤ롣סʸǧոǤԹֽƥ p. 137ˤΤ㳲ٱˡǤϻ¤ξ郎ʤȤߥǤʡ

󥻥󥰤Ǥϡȯɤ䤽Υꥹ˴Ϣ󶡤Ԥ²򤷤ջ׷꤬Ǥ褦ٱ礹롥ޤƼž䥵ݡȸ˴ؤ󶡤ԤᡤʬʰؤδŪ׾ŪμɬפȤʤ롥

βʰ󶡻ߤǤüʻٱȤơŷȱɸ (AIDS) ˴ؤΤꡤԤ԰¤ʤɤФ륫󥻥󥰤ˤȥʤɤο򡤸ǧդôȤԤƤ롥

㶶ȡ
ֶǯǤϼγȯˤŤȱϤȤȤʤ̾뤳ȤǽǤ롣סʸǧոǤԹֽƥ p. 133ˤΤ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹p. 91

Ǿɼˤ (Ǿ´) Ȥơư㳲㳲⼡Ǿǽ㳲ʤɤꡤ˥ϥӥơ߳˿ʤ뤿οŪٱ礬ɬפȤ롥

۴Ĵˤϡ찵̮ꡤȤδϢ⿼ᡤ餬ɬפʥ⤢롥

ʬˤäơɾ򤭤ˤϿŪٱ礬ɬפȤʤ롥ޤǢοͤǢ¤Ǥʤͤ٤ơޤľɾͭͤ2¿ȤƤ롥¤ˤʤȥ󥹥κѤ夯ʤäꡤǢ¤μŤɬפʹư˻پ㤬ФƤ礬ꡤŪٱ礬ɬפȤ롥

ʪ륳롤֥ʤɤ¸˴ؤƤ̵ذŵؤǤΥ饤ȤӲ²Ф̡ץμʤɤ̤ƿŪٱ礬Ԥ롥

㶶ȡ
䥢륳¸
¸ (ʪ, 륳, ֥ʤɡ˻Ѿ㳲ȤФ롥ʪ륳롤֥ʤɤʪưˤä줿ڤ ֤뤦ˡ Ǿλɷ˴Ƥޤ 궯ɷ褦ˤʤ롥 η̡ ʪưȥǤʤʤäƤޤ֤Ǥp. 485

DSM-5Ǥϰ¸ȤդϻѤʤʤꡤ֥륳Ѿ㳲褦ˤʤä

ڤΥæɾǸˡ̲㳲Χоɾ (ȯ̮ʤ)԰Բ郎롥
: ߸5ˡȤѾְռ㳲 (ưʪ), Liepmann (ȤѤνʤɤĴ֤Ǿۤ򤹤ưż뤳ȤǸФ뤳)
륳Υæоİħ

䥢륳
륳ۡˤߤ졤ο
륳Korsakoff¡Ͼ㳲㳲
륳Ǿΰ̤ǧ롥

䥢륳¸ɤμ
롼סǼ륳ۡꥯΥ˥ޥ (AA: AIcoholics Anonymous)
(ʥߥɡե

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹pp. 488-9

ޤǼ꤬뤫ɤ

ܿˤ쥷ԥ (¡󶡼) ȥɥʡ (¡󶡼) ξФ뿴Ūٱ礬ɬפˤʤ롥쥷ԥ (¡󶡼) ϰܿ她ƥɤĹѤʤФʤ餺вФ԰¤⤢롥ޤɥʡФƺմ⤢ꡤФŬڤʿŪٱ礬ɬפǤ롥ɥʡ²Ǥϡïɥʡˤʤ뤫ꤹݤˤޤޤʳƣ²Ǥ꤬߲뤳Ȥ⤢롥򹯤ǼȤΤˤפΤʤѤԤȤˤʤ뤿ᡤΤ褦Ф뿴ŪٱԲķȤʤ롥

㶶ȡ
2010ʿ22ǯˤ¡ܿˡܹԤ졤Ǿ¡󶡤ܿͤΰջɽȲ²ξǤʤܿͤ˵ݤΰջפ򼨤Ƥʤв²ƱդDzǽȤʤäˤ15̤λҤɤ⤫Ǿ¡󶡤ǽȤʤä¡󶡤ΰջפѤջɽݸԾžȵڤ΢ǼȤǤ롣¡ܿܿ˾ԡʥ쥷ԥȡˤ¡ܿͥåȥϿ롣סʸǧոǤԹֽƥ p. 139ˤΤʤ󶡼ԡʥɥʡˤξ֤ˤäơǾ¡ܿ߸¡ܿ¡ܿ롣סʸǧոǤԹֽƥ p. 139ˤ餷3ĤϳФƤɤ褦ʡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹p. 92

ϡǽ㳲䵡ǽ˴٤äȿ¡Фơ˦ѶŪѤơεǽκޤŤǤ롥ΰǤ뤿ᡤ̡̡̤꤬롥ǧդϺüΰŤ˴ؤ򿼤Ʊˡ򥯥饤ȤȶͭĤĿŪٱԤȤ롥

㶶ȡ
ֺŤȤϡΤι¤ǽκƷޤϼ¤μšͽɤŪȤ˦ùʪѤŤǤäơΤ͢졤¤촴˦ܿŤѤ2014 (ʿ26ǯܹԤˡˤäƤƱˡǤκ˦ùΤΤ顤˦ʤɸ߼»Τ, ES˦iPS˦ҥȤ̤»ܤʤΤΤʤɥꥹ˱󶡳ϤޤǤμ³ (¤ʼδޤˤƤ롣סʸǧոǤԹֽƥ p. 139ˤ餷iPS˦ϹꥹʤäΤ͡

㉑󴵼Ԥ䤽β²ФƿŪ˥ץΰ褬󥳥 () Ǥ롥ο () šȯѶŪŤߡηвȼ԰¤䤽ΤۤοŪб롥

㶶ȡ
󥳥Ȥ顤оݤȻפ䡤󴵼ԡʤȤβ²ˤоݤΤ褦

¥Ȥϡʤɤ̿򶼤ȿǤ줿顤ԤȤβ²ǽʸ¤ι⤤š褬褦ˡŪɾδ¤Ūꡤ̣ (ԥ奢롦ڥ) ʤɤؤαԤȤǤ롥

㶶ȡ
WHO (2002) ϴ¥Ȥ̿򶼤ˤľ̤ƤԤȤβ²ФơˤߡŪꡤҲŪꡤԥ奢˴ؤơȤɾ򤪤ʤ줬㳲Ȥʤʤ褦ͽɡн褹뤳Ȥμ (QOL) 뤿ΥץǤƤ롣ʤ¥ȤµˤȤʤΤˤߤ¤餲뤳ȤǤ롣ޤ¥ܿͤ²ּʬ餷ײᤴ褦˻٤뤳ȤɸˤƤ롣¥ϴ¥ޤϴ¥ˤäƼ뤳ȤǤ뤬ˤƤϴ¥ˬŤˬǸϢȤ¥ޤǡ뤤ϴƤϰβߤǼ뤳ȤǤסʸǧոǤԹֽƥ p. 136ʤƤ⳰Ǵ¥ϼȤȤݥȤ⡣

(꡼ե) ȤϡκǽʳˤšΤȤؤդϤȤŽԤŬڤʾ󶡤ʤ졤˴Ťưšܿͤ¿狼鹽šࡤޤܿͤοꤹ²ȤȤˡ֤ä礦Ǥΰջ׷ܤȤǿʤ뤳ȤǤפʸ§Ȥʤ롥

㶶ȡ
κǽʳ²ϻ̤򴶤³Ƥͽò)͡ʿȿ褹롣ˤȤʤοȿòΤ롣òοȿ¿֡٤³˴ؤǥޥ1944)ե󥯡1967)1989ˤʤ¿ͤòץǥ뤬ФƤ뤬ĿͺξۤȤɤοȿ6˰ꤹ뤬ò϶٤³䤹ʤʣ˻پ򤭤Τ褦òϡʣòȸƤФ롣òʣòФ뿴òΥʥ꡼եȤʸǧոǤԹֽƥ  p.138˻̤òϤꡤ̸塤Ⱦǯǰꤹ뤬ȾǯǤϰꤷʤΤ⤢롤ȤȤݥȤϡʣòǤʤò⥰꡼եоݤˤƤȤ

㉓ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹p. 93

ǧոǤԹֽƥȤˤϽФƤʤΤ˥֥롼ץȤˤϽФƤѸ Ver.2018.9.7

֥롼ץ
ϡظǧոǤԹֽƥȡ٤ˤϺܤäƤʤΤΡʤ֥롼ץȤˤϺܤäƤѸޤȤƤߤΤޤȤǤϿѤʤʤȻפΤǡͭ̾ɤΤΤ򤽤ΤޤޡְѡפƤʾСˡοΤȤ֥롼ץȤξѸǤȴäϿɲäƤˡʤط40סʢ󥯡ˡÿء3סʢ󥯡ˡؤޤء3סʢ󥯡ˡؤޤءʥޥˡסʢ󥯡ˤǼ夲ΤϽ

ճʤȤˤεˤä褦Ǥʲ85Ѹ󤲤Ƥޤȥˤ̤ȤϤʤäƤ餺ƥȤѸϤΤ⤢ޤҤƤ褦̤εǼ夲ΤϤˤϽ񤤤ƤޤʴطʳϡεǤϺܤƤȤϻפäƤϤޤƺƷǤȤСִÿء3ˡפ˽ФƤ롤LAD֡LASSٱ祷ƥࡤ餤Ǥ礦ˡ

ֲ㤦󤸤ʤפȤҤޤ顤Ȥʤ᡼ʤǶƤٶˤʤޤ


ɵȽ2018.9.10ˡ

910
86˰ɲ

87˺Ƚ٤ɲ

88˼кɲ

1Ūȯ

ʤФꡤꡤʤɤ귿ŪʹưϡñȿͤȤ϶̤ơ ǽŪưȤФ롥 ⳰ξ˻ɷ㤵ưϢιưŸŪȯȤʪŪᥫ˥뤳Ȥ¿p. 163ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

2륿ߥ

륿ߥΤ褦ʳοãʪǤСʳʥץṲ̋ȯ뤷áߥ (GABA: gamma-amino butyric acid) Τ褦οãʪǤСʥץṲ̋ȯp. 209ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

3ԥ

ԥopioidˤȤϡ䤽δϢʤɤΥ륫ɤҥͳͭޤϹڥץΤǤ롣



4ʸŬ

ʸŬȤϡۤʤʸ褹ݤʸ佬򤷡Ҳ͡Ȥδ֤Ĵ¤ΤȤ줿طݤƤ֤ΤȤǤp. 47ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

5󥿥饤ʥƥ157ǡ

󥿥饤Ȥϡꥹʬϲեʥ Fonagy, P. ˤä󾧤줿ǰǤꡤ¾ι԰٤ĿŪߵᡤ𡤿ǰʤɤοŪ֤˴ŤƤʤȤơۼŪޤŪ˲᤹뿴ŪʥץΤȤ򤵤γǰʤ¾Ԥտޤ䴶ä̤¸ߤȤǧοŪ֤ǤǽȤƤȤ館뤳ȤǤܰԤȤΰꤷȤΤ꤬ŦƤ󥿥饤ʵǽ (renective functioning) ٤ѤƸĿͺ¬ꤹ뤳ȤǤ롥ޤѡʥƥ㳲μˡȤơ󥿥饤˴Ť (mentalization-based therapy) ͭǧƤpp. 66-7ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

6ԥͥƥʥƥ124ǡԥͥƥåѲ

ۻδĶäܴĶǯʹߤˤꥹװǤ뤳Ȥ狼äƤ [ DOHaD (developmental origins of health and disease) Ȥ]. Ȥ᥿ܥåɥʤɤϡȴĶߺѤˤäȯɤȹͤƤ뤬ۻܾϡ˴طҷȯ˱ƶͿȹͤƤ (ԥͥƥ)

DNAѲˤʤȯ桦ã륷ƥपӤγؽʬΤȤ򤤤

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

7ư

ư (ADL: activities of daily living) ϡᡤơ, ưʤɤ褹뤦ǴŪư򤵤ADL㲼طʤˤϡεǽǧεǽ㲼䡤̡ҲĶαƶp. 56ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

8ˡʥƥ195ǡ

Ҥɤ⤬ΡԻƤʤɤˤơҤɤ⼫ȤͿôǾ¤ˤͶƳ뤳ȤʤΤʾФˡȤˡ롥ˡܤϡ³ǧŪǤꡤŪŪܤȤʬƹԤҤ2ﳲɤᡤᤤˡͳŻ뤷ܤ§Ȥ1ԤӥǥϿ褹줿ΥץȥѤơоݤȤʤҤɤȤΥݡ (ط) ֺۤǽ餫ǸޤäƤס֡ȢΤˤäȤäƤס֡ˤĤƤäȾܤäƤס֤줫ɤޤʤɤץѤƼͳʬ¥塤ïɤȤäWH䥯ɼԤäƤޤλҤɤФƱ褦ܤ򷫤֤ԤȤʤ褦ʣδϢؤƱܤԤȤߤԤƤp. 451)

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

9ˬٱ

ȥ꡼ʡ֥롼ץȤǤϡˬٱסȤϡܼǥ󥻥󥰤򤹤Ǥʤϰ˽ФƹԤΥ󥻥Ǥ롥ҤΤ褦ˡƼ絡ؤˬϡɥι⤵ˤäơŪб٤줬Ǥ롥ɤˡ1ĤϡȤܼǥ饤ȤԤĎΤǤϤʤ饤Ȥ褷Ƥ륳ߥ˥ƥˎиפȤǤp. 339ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

10

饤Ȥ꤬褹ˡ饤ȤṲ̄ߤ뤳Ȥǡ(drop out) Ȥ֡ɤˤСƤˤ뤤ĤΥ᥿ʬϤˤΨʿѤ4250٤Ǥꡤ饤ȤȾǤƤޤǤؤäѿϡ饤ȤͼҲкŪϰ̡ʤɤǤä˴ɤˤСΤ褦ʿˡǤ伺Ԥώߺю뤤ώ(negative complementarity) ȤФ롤ԥȤȥ饤ȤߤܤŨդƤޤȤˤΤ¿ȤƤʤ饤ȤϤޤǤݤäƤпʹطѥȿȤơԥȤ˱ȿ򵯤Ȥ¿ˤпŪʾʬн褹뤳Ȥ񤷤p. 359ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

11󥻥

ȯɤȯɤΥꥹ˴Ϣ򰷤󥻥HIV (human immunodeficiency virus, ҥȱ륹) ɤδԤؤοŪԤHIV󥻥ǥлβᤰҤؿŪԤ󥻥ʤɤ׾̤ǤνפʻٱǤ롥Τۤˤ⡤¤륯饤ȤŤ륯饤ȡ¸ (ʪ륳롤֥ʤ) 륯饤ȤФơβ²ޤٱԤȤפǤpp. 484-5ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

󥻥󥰤Ǥϡȯɤ䤽Υꥹ˴ϢԤ²򤷤ջ׷꤬Ǥ褦˻ٱ롥ޤƼž䥵ݡȸ˴ؤ󶡤ԤᡤʬʰؤδŪ׾ŪμɬפȤʤp. 72ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

12Ū޽֡PFA롦եȥɡ


ҳκΤʤǤλٱưϡ¿ˤ¿Ū˹ԤΤǤꡤŪٱˤĤƤƱͤǤ롥äơ翦ʳΥåդŪʻٱˤĤƤμɬפбԤȤԤ롥

ǯΤ褦ФƼɥ饤Ƥ롥ȥ쥹ʤɤݤΥɥ饤ȤƤϡϢεش־߰Ѱ(IASC: inter-agency standing committee) ҳʶ۵޻ˤݷ򡦿ҲŪٱ˴ؤIASCɥ饤󎣤롥ޤŪȤŪ޽ (PFA: psychological first aid, 롦եȥ) Ⳬȯ褦ˤʤꡤɽŪʤΤȤݷ򵡴 (WHO) PFAINational Center for PTSDNational Child Traumatic Stress NetworkPFAp. 396ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ҳʤɤȯŪŪФ޽򡤥뎥եȥ(PFA: psychological frst aid)Ȥݷ򵡴 (WHO) National Child Traumatic Stress Network ŪΥޥ˥奢뤬p. 75ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

͡ȿνɤˤ޽֤ ֳͿʤפΥ롦եȥɤȤ

13ҳɸťDPATǥѥåȡ

øϩ̺ҤηиƧޤơҳɸť (DMAT: disaster medical assistance team,ǥޥå) ȿ졤ϰˤ絬Ϻҳ¿¼ԤȯΤʤɤθǡ (48) ŪФƳưƤ롥

ˡ̺Ҥˤʰťγưʤɤ顤ҳɸť (DPAT: disaster psychiatric assistance team, ǥѥå) Ť줿. DPAT, ʰաǸա̳Ĵ (ƥųưԤθٱ̤Ԥ) ǹ뤬, ϤΥˡ˹碌Ƹʰ, ޻, ݷաݷʡΤ׾ѼʤɤޤȤƤp. 394.

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

͡ҳɸťDMATסDPATפȤϡηаޤȳư

14Υ

ҳʶʤɤȯݤˡʤα޽֤ҼԤΥԤˡʰ濴Ȥ¿ǹť򿴤ΥȤ֡p. 75ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ҳʶʤɤȯդϤᡤٱôԼȤʥȥ쥹ˤ졤󼡼ξ֤˴٤ǽ⤢롥ҳξٱ祻󥿡WebڡǤΥȤƯٱԸҳ߱ԥ󥿥إ륹ޥ˥奢٤Ƥ롥ǤϡҳٱԤ뿴Ȥȿ䤽нˤĤƤޤȤƤꡤդҳٱ˷ȤݤˤͭפʾȤʤp. 401ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

15μ

ǯǤϡƸܸߤȤäߤǤܰˤμȤơᤴǻҤɤ⤿Фƿ̤μŤԤ㤬ƤƤp. 82ˡ



ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ



16ﳲԤλ줿

Ⱥȸ礦ȤǡȤ礭ﳲԤ䤽ΰ²οǧﳲԤ䤽θ²դäбƤȤȤˡƤӺȤʤդǤᤵȤŪȤp. 447ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

17ưŤˡʥƥ156ǡ

ߤʤɤǹԤ뤵ޤޤʻٱץϡ̣̳ȤƼ뎣ˡ̤˻ٱоݼԤưŤ٤Ϥۤɹ⤯ʤȤ¿ǡ¿λߤǎưŤˡפιͤ³ȤƤ롥μ礿άϡоݼԤ󥸥ȡ (Ѳδ˾ѲǤȤιͤѲؤγڴѻ롤Ѳ뤳ȤؤѲʤȤؤ԰¡ǰѲɬפʹưζŪײʤ) ФȤǤꡤκݤ˻ٱԤϡ줿 (openended question), ǧǧ (affirm), ʹ֤ (renective listening), (summarize) ʤɤεˡѤ뤳Ȥ侩 (OARSά)

åǻȲĢưŤܤλۡˡͦŤȤδϢ١ɥ顼ظ˹ԤäƤ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

18ꥢ󥵥ƥ

饤ȤǽϡŬİŬŬ°˴ؤ򤹤뤳ȤŬ򤱤뤳ȤˤĤʤ롥ޤȸ٤λ夬ꡤο褢뤤ϼˤĤѶŪ˹ͤƤȤפȤʤäƤp. 456-7).

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

19Сƥʥƥ35ǡʸŪСƥ

դ򤷤Ƥ٤ǰСƥ (ͺ¿) 롥Сƥ˴ޤޤ°Ȥơ̡ǯ𡤿ͼ̱²Ūظ̤̣ѡʥƥŪǽϤʤɤ롥ޤޤʿͤθǽϤ褫ȿˤ뤳ȤȤĹˤĤʤȹͤp. 458ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

20ʸ

ͥ褷¸ȿΤ򤤤Τθ¿Ͽʹ֤Υߥ (ҥ塼ޥ󥨥顼) Ǥ뤳Ȥ顤˴ؤ붵ԤǸΨŪʼ뤳ȤפǤ롥ȿǼȤɻߺȤ, KY (;) ưꥹȡҥꡦϥåȤʤɤԤƤp. 466ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

21ΤƱ

Τ٤ϡƸ̽ĹҤɤܰΤƤ˰٤ǤʻƸʡˡ271)ܻұȤܻұΤҤɤȻο²ΤƤˤʤ²Τ, ܻұȤȤҤɤܰŪȤܰΤפ3ʬ롣ܰΤƤˤϤˤäƿȤͭʱƶ뤳ȤŪʥбΤפߤƤp. 111ˡ

شط١ʱ󸫽˼ˤ

22Ĺ㳲FTTʴʥƥ198ǡ

ȯ㳲 (ȯ) (NoFTT: nonorganic failure to thrive) , Ū꤬ʤܰĶͥ쥯Ȥʤɤȯã˱ƶڤܤƤ֤Ǥ롥Ū꤬äȯã֤ϡȯ㳲 (ȯ) (FTT: organic failure to thrive)ȤФp. 55ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

23԰١ǹԡ˾㳲ȿĩ㳲ȿҲѡʥƥ㳲

԰ (ǹ) 㳲ȤϡȿҲŪŪ뤤ȿŪʹưѥ󎣤ȿ³㳲򤤤ޤȿҲѡʥƥ㳲ʡˤؤȯŸ뤳Ȥ롥ȿĩ㳲ϡˡ¾ͤθ򿯳뤳ȤϤʤ԰پ㳲Ȱۤʤ롥˸դؤȿŪĩŪʹư³p. 495ˡ

ʡ18ʾǿǤ15ǹԾξɾĤ뤳Ȥɬס

DSM-5ǤϡȿĩɡǹԾɤȤˡ˲Ūư桦ǹԾɷפäƤ롣

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

24ȯãĴư

ȯãĴưϡĤαư򶨱뤳Ȥʾ褹ΤǤ,ҤɤβϤԴѤϡ꤬ߤƤȹͤ뤳ȤǤp. 275ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ܡꤲ롤⤯Ȥä籿ưΤߤʤ餺ܥϤȤäȤȤưʤɤٱưޤޤp. 23ˡ

ظǧդΤȯã㳲١ʶǡˤ

25åȾ㳲

ޤǾҲ𤷤ȯã˴ؤΤۤ¿ͤȯã꤬¸ߤ롥ȤС˴ؤǤϡȿåȾ㳲ʤӤæп͸ή㳲ϡҤɤ򤹤뤦ǽפʳǰǤ롥ȿåȾ㳲ϡܰԤФƿʤǰ (åȡˤ뤳ȤʤȤħȤ㳲ǡͥ쥯ȤδϢƤ롥ޤæп͸ή㳲̤ͤʤɤФʸŪŬڤ˲٤ܶᤷήȤȤħΤǤp. 275ˡ

DSM-5ǤȿåȾ㳲æп͸ή㳲ϡŪӥȥ쥹Ϣ㳲פäƤ롣

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

26ɸ

ɸϡΰĤ, SNRI (Ūȥ˥󡦥Υ륢ɥʥƼ˳ˤNaSSA (Υ륢ɥʥưðŪȥ˥ư) ʤɤǸ, в, ԰¡ʤɤξɾ򤤤p. 99ˡ

ǰθʤɤͶȯǽ롣

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

27̲ήʥƥ103

̲ήȤϡΥޤ̵ˡҤɤƸܰƤʤƤŪ˻Ҥɤ̲ʤɤԤȤǤp. 86ˡ

28¸о

¸ŪͶȯоͤΰ۾ưѥϡ̤Ф꡼輨뿿ߤˤϱ¤ȼʱߤˤȼʤȤʬŤԤäۤ餫ʿߤʱߤ̤鳫
ʱߤŤû¤Ĺ˶ŤƿߤȤ̤ˤʤ鷱³η̡̤ݤ³̤ϡưȿȺ򼨤褦ˤʤꡤäϤʤƤưפ̤ޤǤ⤬ǤʤʤäѥդϡǾǶʳߤΥХ󥹤졤ܶ-ƣξ֤˴٤äɽ줿ɾǤȹͤp. 85ˡ

ؿؼŵ ǡ١˼ˤ

29ƶؽ

ŤͤΩؽϡǧΤƯ˻٤Ƥ뤳Ȥ⤢롥ҥȤͱǤϡԺФƹưѲΤǤϤʤȤƬΤʤưפĤ (ƶ)ʹߤϤƱưǤ褦ˤʤƶؽߤp. 163ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

30߳ؽ

ûμ¸ǡ˥֤ƶȡϩȴ֤ûʤäƤ֤ʤ򤷤Ф餯֤Ƥ饨֤褦ˤȡȴ֤Ϻǽ餫饨äˤФ䤯ɤĤƤʤˤƬΤʤϩǧϿؽƤȹͤ졤߳ؽȤ֡p. 164ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ҲŪؽ

Хǥ塼Ϥäǧοؤιͤ顤ҲŪؽ󾧤ΤʤdzؽȤϡݻưưŤ4ĤβʤȤޤʬ줫餷ưŬڤ˹Ԥä̤ˤǤȤǧ修ǰǤʸϴŻ뤷Ƥ롥ҲŪؽޤ׾ؤαѤǽǤ롥ǧιưˡΰȤƤ֤Ť륽륹륺ȥ졼˥ (SST: social skills training) ϡμҲŪޤưǥ뤬餸ΤߤޤͤƤߤϡԤŬڤʤۤʤɤΥեɥХåǶƤΤǡ㳲ԤμҲٱʤɤѤƤp. 166ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ҲŪǧ

ͤ¾Ԥ伫ʬȡޤҲΤޤޤʴĶ򤷡ɾΤȤҲŪǧΤȤ֡ݷпǧΡ°ʤɤޤޤp. 44ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ҲŪ

ҲŪȤϡ¾ԤȤδطˤ봶ΤȤǤꡤʰռŪȤФ롥ᰭʤߡؤʤɤꡤϡʬλ׹͡տޡưˤĤƤμʤФեɥХåȤʤꡤŪʵǽp. 45ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ҲŪư

餭ȤäŪư˴ŤưȤϰۤʤꡤ¾ԤȤδؤˤƷưҲŪưȤ֡פʤΤȤơãưưp. 45ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

пǧ

пǧΤȤ,¾Ԥ˴ؤ뤵ޤޤʾȤˡʤտޤʤɤȽǤꡤưͽ¬ƯΤȤǤp. 45ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ҲŪ

ʤ¾ԤޤवޤޤҲŪݤ˴ؤƹԤҲŪȤҲŪθǤϡΥ顼, Х, ҥ桼ꥹƥå (и§ˤʤɤ򰷤p. 45ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ʲ

ʤФɾƼʤ¾Ԥؤ輨Ȥäʤ˴Ϣ͡ʸݤϢο򼫸ʲȤ֡ʲϡʤؤİɾɽ4Ĥ˶ʬp. 44ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ʲͤޤǤˡ
ʤˤ¿ͤ¦̤Ư뤬ǤϤ¤Ū¦̡ɾŪ¦̡ڤӼ¹ԡŪ¦̤ʬ롣桹ϼʤ˴ؤμʵǰˤͭƤ뤬¦̤˴ؤƶѼμ櫓ǤϤʤʬˤȤäƽפʻˤĤƤ¿μ礵ƤꡤʥƤ롣ޤʬ˴ؤμϾƤͤ˻ȲǽʤΤǤϤʤΤȤɤ˳ƻȤ䤹μǤưŪʳǰư롣ưŪʳǰˤϤƤ˱äưƳᡤƤ˱ơϰϤǿͤιưư뤳Ȥˤʤ롣ưŪʳǰϡλ˼ʬ֤줿ҲŪʸ̮佾Ƥ뤳Ȥʤɤ˱ư뤬¾Ԥˤɤʬ򸫤ʤɤˤäƤư롣桹μʳǰϡ¾Ԥ輨ƤˡûŪˡƤ뎡㤨,¾ԤǼҸŪ˿񤦤ȼʳǰϼҸŪƤθιư⤳μʳǰ˱äƼҸŪˤʤ롣θݤ򼫸輨߲ȸƤ֡ʤʲǽоݤǤꡤɾоݤǤ롣ʤ뤿ˤʬȤդɬפ뤬դ줿ʳȸƤӡηθĿͺʰռȸƤ֡ͤˤϼʬȤФɾʹ⤯˰ݻ뿴ᥫ˥बäƤꡤɾ͡άˤäưݻ롣ϡʤФɾνפħǤꡤ¿ͤά˴ؤ븦椬롣Фơ¿ͤάˤ꼫ºݻᥫ˥बͤäƤΤϤʤȤ̤ȤǤΤ¸߶ҴȽ°ߵǤ롣¿μɾݻϾĶʤ䡤ХΤä̤ƹԤ롣㤨ХƥȤǰӤȤäˡ꤬äޤٶʤäȤꤵ줿ʤɤȳŪװ˸°뤳ȤǡʬγϤФɾϰݻ뤳Ȥˤʤ롣ˤϡ˸װФաϥǥåԥʤ뤳Ȥ⤢롣ʤФɾΤǤ褯夲ΤºǤ롣ºȤƤФ졤ʬФŪɾ̣Ūʼɾ⤤㤤Ȥ򡤼º⤤,㤤ȸɽʲͿȼǥˤСºŪʼʤФɾǤϤ뤬ʬͤȼƤΰˤɾȼäƾ岼롣ĤޤꡤʬˤȤäƽפǰ̣Τΰˤ뼫ɾΤɾưΤǤ롣ɾϼȤã伺ԤǤʤ¾ԤȤǤҲŪˤäƤ⤿餵롣㤨Сͥ줿¾ԤȤӡʾӡˤϼʬɾ򲼤䤹ä¾ԤȤӡʲӡˤϼɾ夲䤹ҲŪӤβ濴˿ƼɾݻΥᥫ˥ǥ벽ƥåˤɾݻǥ(SEM)Ǥ롣侭μʬȤӤѻŪӤȸƤ֤Ӥ˴ŤɾݻΥᥫ˥बȥ륽ηѻŪɾˤäƼƤ롣ɾݻ뤿ɱŪȿˤϡɾ򲼤򤱤롤βͤ㤯ɾʤɡҤȤʤΤĥѥȤ㸺άͤ롣ƥμʳǧˤСʬβͤǧ뵡񤬤СͤɱŪȿޤƶҤȤʤ뤳ȤǤ롣㤨СʱԤˤȤäƤϵʱγ򼨤ʳŪڵ϶ҤȤʤ뤬ʬפȻפȤƳǧʲͤǧϡʱԤǤäƤ⡤ʱγ˴ؤҴŪ˸뤳ȤǤ褦ˤʤ롣ĤޤꡤҤȤʤȤ̤¦̤ˤơҤй񸻤ݤȤάǽʤΤǤ롣ɾ򲼤褦ʾ󤬵դ˵⤢롣ʬ˴ؤƤɤΤ褦ʾ뤫ȤưˤϡΤɾξʺưޤɾξʹư˲äʬɾ˰פɾʳξưʬ뼫ʲư롣ɾŪǼº㤤ͤϡʾưƯϼɾ򲼤뤳ȤˤʤꡤŪɾ䤹ʤμ¹ԵǽǤɸɵˤƤϡܻؤΤԤ򤱤ΤȤĤά롣άҥ󥺤Ǥϡ˾Ƥ뤳Ȥ¥ʾԤβ˾Ƥ뤳ȤɱҾȸƤӡԤǤϥꥹ򤬹ޤ뤬ǤϵդǤ뤳Ȥʤɤ餫ˤƤ롣ޤΨ褯ɸɵ᤹뤿ϡ̤ɸ̵ط뤤ɹɸɵʤƤϤʤʤΤ褦ʼˤ񸻤ɬפȤʤ롣Хޥϡͭ¤Ǥꡤ͡ʷμ˶̤ƻѤ졤٤˾񤹤ȸϳ餹ȡ񸻤­ʸϳ֤Ǥ̾椵Ƥ͡ʹԤǤʤʤ뤳Ȥ򼨤pp. 255-7ˡ

ؿؼŵ ǡ١˼ˤ

ʸŪʴ

ʸŪʴѤȤϡ͡δ֤ǶͭƤʸŪʹѤˤäƺ줿ֿʹ֤ȤϤΤȤͤǤ롥ͤϲΩ¸ߤǤȹͤΩŪʴȡͤ¾ԤȤδط¸ߤƤȹͤ߶ĴŪʴp. 47ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ



ϡǿ̤ͤοиǹμη (ǰ) ΤȤǤ롥ҤɤƱͤˡޤǤηиˤäƷΤȤݤˤĤƤäƤȤp. 47ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ƤȤƤȯã

ʹˤϿ򥹥Ȥ¿οͤ뺧򤷤ơ²ҤɤƤ롥Ƥ鼫ΩƿۤȤǡ٤ϼʬȤƤȤƤȯãȤƻҤɤȯã뤳Ȥˤʤ롥ޤҲˤƤϡʬȤˤƥꥢѤߤĤġƤƤȤp. 257ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ǯ

ǯ,ͭŪľ̤Ǥ⤢롥Ȥ碌ϤοꤨŻθ³²Ѳʤɤȼǯ٤䤹ƣʤɤϡǯȤФp. 53ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ʡ餯ؤΤȡ

ƥʡιؤǤϡؤμϰռŪиˤȤơռǤñʬΤ褦ǤϢ礹ˡ§򸫤ꡢǤŪȤӤĤꤹ뤳ȤؤܼŪǤȹͤƥʡϰռŪиŪǤؤȴԸ뤳Ȥ˶̣äΤǡȤΤ褦Фؤ礷ƤηϤФƤȿФƤǤϴФ䴶䥤᡼ʳΤȤϸǤʤǤϤʤȤȽФƤϡϹؤΥơޤǤϤʤΤǴΤʤȤƤp. 25ˡ

ؿظܥɽ ǡ١ʼ̳ǡˤ

奿ȿ

奿ȿؤˤ礭顼ijɤȥ٥ɤȤ2Ĥγɤꡢɤγɤγвˤ뤢ΤޤȤޤ濴˸ʤƤ֥󥿡Ταƶ顢ɷ㤬ɤΤ褦γФ뤫⡢ɷɤΤ褦γФ褦ȤΤȤƯΤۤ˴ؿäΤ奿ȿؼԤȤ롣

ŤۤΥ顼ijɤϥȥꥢΥ顼ؤ濴ȿƤˡ֥奿ȼˤĤơ(1890)Ȥʸǽƥ奿ȤȤѸȤäե륹(Ehrenfels,C.)ե륹ϲڤ夲ǥġβȤǤȡǥȤƤβȤ˰ۤʤͤ򸫤ǥĴȡġβѤäƤޤǥΤƱ褦γФǤ롣θȤơġβ¤˥奿ȼä뤫ȹͤΤǤ롣Фơ¸ŪʥץߤΤϥɥĤΥ٥ɤΥ奿ȿؼԤǤ롥

ȥϥް (Wertheimer, M. ˤ1912ǯȯɽʸǡñʿ޷Ĺ򥹥꡼˺ǽϤΤޤ޿ʿˡϤޤޤʻֳִ֤45٤줿輨ȡŬʻֳִ(100ʬοáˤΤȤˤͳѷ夬褦˸뤳Ȥ򸫤κŬֳִ֤ΤȤˤʪŪ¸ߤʤϤʬä˳餫ʱưγФ뤬輨֤û2Ĥο޷Ʊ¸ߤ褦γФ졢Ĺȸؤо줹褦˸ǤⱿưǧʤäȥϥޡŬֳִ֤輨ȤˤΤ뤳θư̾Ťưϼºߤ뱿ưǤϤʤݤˤʤΤǡ (phenomenon) ȤñκǽΥꥷʸեʤΡˤäơեȤƤФ롣

ΤɤΤ褦ˤޤȤޤäƸΤˤĤơ٥ɤץ쥰ʥĤθȤˡ§Τ褦ʤΤ󾧤θȯΤäȤʤäΤϡȥϥޡΥ˥(MW)Ťͤɽ򸫤ȤˡʸǧʤäθǤ롣ʤʸǤϤʤĤΤҤο޷Τۤݤ˻ĤΤˤĤơȥϥޡϻ褦ʸݤʬϤƤϢ³װܤװĹװƱװʤɡ䤿ΤޤȤγФݤα줿װ奿װˤ򸫤

奿ȿؤ濴Ūʹͤˡﲾؤΰ۵ĤȤΤ롣ؤʪؤ򸦵椷Ƥ19γؼԤ¿ϡĹĹογФȤä褦ˡġʪŪݤȿŪθʴСγСˤȤδ֤11бطꤷƤ줬ﲾǤ뤬奿ȿؼԤϤꤷƤ򤤻ŤǸȡҴŪˤϤʤ곥ΤϤ򤤤ޤޤǸȤäγФιˤĤƤϡΤ褦뤵ιϤȤơ礭ιιʤɤΤƤ롣奿ȿؤǤϡγФιθݤϰꤷγΩ뤿ɬפʤΤǤȹͤγФʪŪɷˤäȤ⡢줿ǾγưγФΤޤäƱǾñ̤Ǥ鹽ʪɷ㡧ˤ輨Ƥ⡢λɷ֤κޤȤޤκȤʤäγФʡȤϤޤȤޤ꤬ۤʤäγФˤȤϡγФǼŪȿΤǤ롣

奿ȿؤιͤϡγаʳ˳ؽؤҲؤΰˤƶͿȤС٥ɤ(Kohler,W.) ϥѥ󥸡ƶ𤷤ơԺؽΤ褦ϢŪʳؽФưۤ򾧤ޤ (Lewin, K.)ʪˤʹ֤ιư˱Ѥơ͡δĶˤ֤ʤɤĿͤιưͿƶϳء롼סʥߥåˤȤΰȯŸpp. 30-1ˡ

ؿظܥɽ ǡ١ʼ̳ǡˤ

СʡἫʼƴС

ФϡǽҤ٤ƤΤۤ¡ޤࡣФȤϡʶڤᤫϤǡ䱿ưγȿ͵ݤp. 207ˡ

ؿظܥɽ ǡ١ʼ̳ǡˤ

СİС̣С̳ʿմаʳδФϡ¡ʬव롣ΤФϡˡΤɽ̤ǴشȡΤοˤʶζ¿秡Ǵʼƴʬp. 173ˡ

ؿؼŵ ǡ١˼ˤ

γФβĵ

Ǿ»ˤꡤеǽ夯ʤäꡤӼ硤ۤδеǽĤɤǾƤεǽ䴰褦ˤʤΤ褦ǾνʵǽƷγФβ (Ǿεǽ)Ȥp. 21ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ŤʡᶲݾŤ

ɷUSȤŵŪŤǡݾŤȤ⤤ȥϥͥߤ򶲤ʤ11ΥС˷ˡͥߤCS礭ʲʥСȤ϶äƵ㤯ˤUSȤƸŵŪŤԤäСȤͥߤݤ褦ˤʤäǤʤ򥦥䥵󥿥Ҥݤ褦ˤʤäʻɷ̲)p. 46ˎ

ؿظܥɽ ǡ١ʼ̳ǡˤ

ҲŪǧ

ҲŪǧȤϡʹ֤ϴĶѶŪƯʤĿŪǰ (󥹥ȥ饯ȡˤäƼҲᤷǧΤƤȤΤǤ롥ޤҲŪǧǤʬȤ᤹뤿ѤĿŪǰѡʥ륳󥹥ȥ饯Ȥפʰ֤ŤȤʤp. 33ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ǥꥺ

ǥꥺ () ϡưФפ˴Ϣ24ּƱĴ븽Ǥ롥ȤСưʪĿ̲å뤬롥Υꥺˤϡ뾲λ򺵾ˡʤ褦ˤؤäƤp. 38ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ҲŪƶ

Ŀͤ佸١ոư¾Ԥ佸ĤαƶˤäѲΤȤҲŪƶȤƱĴ˲ɤαƶҲŪ¥ʤʤɤp. 43ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

TEACCHtreatment and education of autistic and related communication handicapped children

ASDħ˹碌 (ȤФΤȤ¤ʤ) 鹽졤Բ²ˤ錄ٱ礹ȤܻؤץǤ롥ٱԤˤϡդȤΤߤʤ餺ϰҲޤޤƤŪƤȤʤäƤp. 293ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ˡ

1960ǯ˥ꥫʰСȡХȥ顼᤬󾧤ˡβפˤĤƎäסʹס֥ߥ˥Ȥ뎣Ȥ԰٤Ǿɷ㤵졤 ǧξͽǧξοʹԤ٤餻뤳ȤǤ롥ޤ֤ꤵ̤ԤǤ뤿ᡤ ԤΤͽɤѤ뤳Ȥ⤢p. 419ˡ

׾λʻǤϡס☓ˤȤƤ褯ꤵƤ롣

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

51ʥƥ֥ץ

ŪץǤϡˡ䡤оݼԤν񤭵ΤʤɤѤơŪˡΎȤ館褦Ȥ롥Τ褦Ū¦ޤƥѡʥƥ򤷤褦Ȥ뤳򎢥ʥƥ֥ץ(narrative approach)Ȥ֡p. 190ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

52ʹֿŪץ

ʹֿŪץȤϡĿͤομŪθŻ뤷ꤹΩǤ롥μˡǤŪץˤƥʥƥ֥ץμˡѤˡоݼԤν񤭵ΤʤɡŪ¦ޤơŪˤΎפª褦Ȥp. 35ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ޤǤΤ٤Ƥ褦ʿʹ֤ҴŪʬŪˤߤФơỤ̄ʼ¸Ŀͤ˾ޤ׾֤ؤȸưʤ򸫤褦ȤΤʹץǤp. 322

ؿؼŵ ǡ١˼ˤ

53ҲŪͥåȥ

ҲŪͥåȥȤϡĿͤпŪʤĤʤΤǤꡤ˭ϡͤοŪŪʷ򹯤˱ƶͿp. 44ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

54ܰ鿮ǰ²ξŪ

ҤɤξŪȯãˤ, ܰ鿮ǰ (ܰԤΤäƤҤɤФ븫ͤ) ܰ١ޤ²ξŪ (شطɹ²ɽΥݥƥ֤ʤ) Ϳƶ礭p. 46ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

55ش˽ϡ²

οŪٱоݤϡҤɤǤʤƤޤࡥȤпƤˤԤθˡϺش˽ (DV, IPV) ʤƼȤ뿴Ū꤬¸ߤ뤳Ȥ¿äˡҤɤ⤿ؤλٱǤϡ褬񤷤ʤ롥Ҥɤ⤿ϲǤ褬Ȥʤ뤿ᡤ嵭Τ褦Ŭڤʡ˶ˤĤʤװǤ餹ˤƤؤλٱ¹ԤƼ»ܤɬפ롥ޤƸܸߤꤹƸβ (²) 䡤Τ٤ӾŪܻұ٤Ѥ˸ٱξˤ⡤ƻҴطĴȥȤɬפȤʤp. 410ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

56

ȤϡμҲޤϽˤդ路ȹͤưɽȤѤɽǤ롥ʪŪȤϻȤʬ롥켫ΤɤβȽǤϴޤޤʤp51

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

57奢ƥ

奢ƥȤϡư˴ؤĿͤ䡤˴Ϣưη򼨤ǰǤp. 51ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

58򹯼̿

ʿѼ̿ꡤ¤ʤŪ˼ҲưǤ򹯼̿κγ礬ҲβȤʤäƤp. 55ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

59ڥȥȥ졼

ڥȡȥ졼˥󥰤ȤϡҤɤιưФơơܰԡˤưγؽ˴Ť٤䵻ˡǴؤ뤳ȤؤΡ롼ץȥ졼˥Ǥ롣ƤҤɤưҴŪ򤷡Ŭڤʴؤ뤳ȤǡҤɤŬưƤΰȥ쥹δ¤ŪʿƻҴط¥ʤ뤳ȤԤǤ롣ڥȡȥ졼˥󥰤ƳˤäƤϡҤɤξ㳲ǯȯãưڤӿƤʬ˹θơ롼׹ץƤƤ뤳ȤפǤp. 430ˡ

ؿؼŵ ǡ١˼ˤ

ADHD
Фƥӥǥ󥹤Ƥ뿴ˡϡưŪڥȡȥ졼˥ưŪ饹ޥͥȡưŪֲưŪȤ߹碌ȥ졼˥ (organization skills training) Ǥ. ȥ졼˥󥰰ʳưˡ١ȤƤꡤưˡѤˡݸԤ˶ҤɤФƼ»ܤƤ餦ΤưŪڥȡȥ졼˥عζդ˶Ҥɤ˼»ܤƤ餦ΤưŪ饹ޥͥȡ饹ͧͤ˶оݤλҤɤ˼»ܤƤ餦ΤưŪֲǤ롥ȥ졼˥󥰤϶ʤɤܡִʪδʤɤˡҤɤ˶ٱˡǤp. 292ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

60

оݼԤդޤ˱ǤŬڤʻٱ򤷡¹Ԥɬפ롥оݼԤ·ˤ䡤ҤɤǤˤϡδطԡ²Ȥä礤ȤȤˡ¹ԡޤ¹Ԥ򷫤֤ƹԤp. 67ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

61Ʊ

ƱȤϡƱȤФ졤ι⤤ˡˤơߤ˰οŪΥݤʤ鿮طǤäȼȤǤطΤȤǤp. 68ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

62Ū

ޤĤĤоݤȤ襱Υ꡼եǤϡŪʤɤȹ碌ŪȤp. 81ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ȯã㳲ʸ̮Υޥ

ŪȤǤȤ礭ʬȰʲˤʤ롣

ȯã㳲ò˵󤲤ʤɢ󥯡

ŪࡦǧŪħΥWISC-Kȯãʤɢ󥯡

ŬưΥVineland-Ŭưʤɢ󥯡

Ф䱿ưΥʴСܸǴХץե롤ưDCDQ-RʴܡˡM-ABC 2ľܡˤʤɡ

ʻ¸ΥM. I. N. Iʤɡ

ҲŪĶŪʲ²ع졦ϰʤɡ

p. 37

ʡϰѼԤ39-42ǤΤΤ

ظǧդΤȯã㳲١ʶǡˤ

63ȿڤʸ

ȿڤȤϡڡȤ⤤졤ۤȿȶ̤褦ȼ򤵤ȿľŪ뤤ϴŪγФιͤưŤ˱ƶͿװǤ롥, ȿʸϴʸȤ⤤ǰ, бĤΤޤޤʥ롼ʤɤʤꡤȿλŻοʤľܱƶװǤpp. 465-6ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

64ˡ

κˡϡ̡ܡڹݤʤɤΤ褦ŪȤؤκˡϤ˥쥯ꥨˡƳʤɤޤp. 97ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

65ƨ򡦲ؽ

ŵåʤɤͭʻɷ򤱤ưƨȤͭʻɷФȿԤȤǡ򤱤뤳ȤǤ褦ˤʤ뤳ؽȤp. 25ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

66

ߥ Mischel, W. ϡưϤɤΤ褦ʾǤΤɤΤ褦ʾǤ¸ߤѡʥƥϤΤȤꤲơ (ʹְ) p. 34ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

67ƻʥƥ269ǡ

ԥ
ԥϡҤɤƻȯã3ʳʬʳ鎢¾ΧŪƻʳءƎ¾ΧŪƻʳΧŪƻʳؤȯãȹͤ
56ФޤǤλҤɤϡ濴ħŤ졤ʤ¾Ԥζ̤ĤʤΤ,ޤˤ뤹٤ƤΤΤʬΤΤȹͤʤɡ§ˤĤƤۤȤ򤷤Ƥʤ56кˤʤȡ§ϡȤξƤΤ褦ʽפ¾ԤˤäƷƤȻפ§ŪʤФʤΤȹͤƤ롥
٤ϡտޤǤϤʤ԰٤ˤäȽǤ롥줬10аʾˤʤȡŬʼ³ȤޤιդС§ѹǧ褦ˤʤʤ,ʹͤǤ褦ˤʤ롥԰٤طʤˤտˡȽǤǤ褦ˤʤpp. 262-3ˡ

㥳С
ԥƻȯãʳ,ƸޤǤˤȤɤޤäƤΤФ,Сϡǯʹޤ᤿ƻȯãͤСϡ̿ˡɿȳȤäŪͤƣ륹ȡ꡼޲ˤѤơƻȯãªΥ޲ϡǤ褯ΤƤ뎢ϥĤΥ޲ꎣǤ롥
СϡȽǤ켫ΤǤϤʤʤȽǤ˻äΎ԰٤ͳŤˤäơƻȯãʲʳʬष.
ŪʿǤϡ鷺̳뤳Ȥˤʤ뤫ǤϤʤפȤ褦ˡȳФ붲䡤뤳Ȥˤäƺʤ֤Ǥ褤פȤ褦ˡ󽷤뤳ˤʤ¾Ԥߵ˲ͤ롥
ŪʿǤϡޤʤä顤꤫򸫼ΤƤ䤿ʹ֤񤵤뤫פȤ褦ˡͤɤ뤫(̾򤱤)뤤ώˡΧʤΤϤʤ顤ǤϤʤΤ褦ˡι԰٤ҲŪʤɤȤ롥
ǸæŪʿϡ̿βͤϼҲ᤿ˡΧĶȤˤꡤºŤ٤Τ⤷ϥĤޤʤä顤ɿդˤʤޤפȤ褦ˡߤ򤷤Ū˽ʤɡʹ֤ºɿˤʤäƤ뤫ɤȤpp. 263-4ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

68ҲŪʥƥ265ǡ

ʤޤġͤŪνṲ̄ȤơŪΤ礹ҲŪ (social dilemma) ȤΤˤϡҲŪޤϡġͤ϶ϤޤϹưΤɤ餫򤹤롤ġͤˤȤäƤ϶ϹưϹưȤ˾ޤ̤롤ʬˤȤäͭϹưȤȡäƶϹưȤä˾ޤʤ̤ȤΤǤ롣ϹưûŪˤϸĿͤ⤿餹顤֤ߤʤΤȤͤ褦פȤⶵǤϤȤϲ褷ʤp. 340ˡ

ؿ ǡ١ͭաˤ

69ݷ

å (Asch,1946) ϡȤФʪ򵭽ҤƾҲ𤹤ݡȤơ췲︳ԤˤϡŪʡݴѤʰ٤ʡݲݷϤΤݼºŪʡѿפȤƻΥꥹȤ򼨤¾ΰ췲︳ԤˤϡŪʡݴѤʡݶ٤ʡ䤿ݷϤΤݼºŪʡѿפȤ̤ΥꥹȤ򼨤2ĤΥꥹȤϡֲפȡ䤿פȤʬ
ۤʤäƤǤ뤬ȤƤʪˤĤƺ夲줿ΰݤϡԤΤۤäȹŪǤäåϡֲס䤿פȤƻ줬гˤȤʤꡤ濴ˤ¾θ줬ޤȤơơ˿ʪŪʰݤȹͤȤꥹȤΡֲפˡ鵷ס䤿פˎ̵ۤʡפȤƻѤˤϡȤʤäʪФƷΰݤˤ礭ʰ㤤ϤʤäΤ褦ˡݷβˤޤƶڤܤʤȤp. 272ˡ

ؿ 5ǡ١ؽDzˤ

70°

伺ԤθɤˤΤͤ뤳򸶰°Ȥ磻ʡ (Weiner, B.,1979)ϡǽ3ĤμǸ°ʬषƤ롣ϡοͤˤΤˤΤȤǤ롣ϡŪʤΤĹˤ錄ΤȤǤ롣ǽϡʬˤȤäȥ뤬ǽɤȤǤꡢɤΤ褦ʸ°ԤˤäơιưФδԤ䴶𤬷ޤꡢιưꤵȹͤ

ãư⤤ͤ㤤ͤȤǤϡθ°ۤʤȤãưι⤤ͤϡǽϤι⤵Ϥ˵°ԤϤηǡ˵°뷹ˤƥȤäȤƤ⡢θ­ˤȹͤͤϡäȴĥäٶСϤ褤ȤԤƤΤǡưŤ㲼ˤãư㤤ͤϡ񤷤䱿ʤɤ˵°ԤǽϤηǡ˵°뷹ƥȤäΤϡʬǽϤ㤤ȹͤƤޤȡ򤷤Ƥ̵̤ȡưŤ㲼ƤޤԤǤ뵤ʤ䤹Ҥɤ⤬ɸФ˼Ȥ褦ˤ뤿ˤϡθ­ؤȵ°褦Ư򤹤뤳ȤפǤp. 104ˡ

ؿظܥ ǡ١ʼ̳ǡˤ

ʤ°פҲؤʸ̮ǤФƤƤ롣

°Ȥ,ʪθͽ¬פȤǤ롥Ȥ, ͤưȤäȤˡʤΤ褦ʹưȤäΤͤ뤳ȤǤ롥ư򤷤ܿͤŪװǤȹͤ뎢Ū°ȡư򤷤ܿͤǤϤʤϤξʤɤװǤȹͤ뎢Ū°롥

°βˤĤƤϡޤޤ롥硼 Jones, E. ȥǥ Davis, K. бǤϡż֤Τʤʤ椺äͤ򸫤ơοͤϿڤʤʎȤȤ館褦ˡ԰ټԤʤʤɤŪװ˵°Ƥ롥԰٤οͤʤˤΤȽǤȤˤϡι԰٤ȤοͤʤȤӤĤ뤳 (б) פǤȤƤꡤбˤϡ԰ټԤΤξǤ䡤԰٤򤹤뤳ȤˤäΤ䡤ι԰٤μҲŪ˾ޤʤɤƶͿ롥ޤ꡼ Kelly, H. ѥǥ (ANOVAǥ)Ǥϡ¾Ԥιư°ݤˡŪ°⤷ϳŪ°ΤˤĤϡ3Ĥװ () Ȥ߹碌ˤäƷꤹȹͤƤ롥ȤС̡ͤͤ򤪤⤷ȻפäƤ뤳Ȥ硤οͤϤɤ̡ͤ򸫤Ƥ⤪⤷ȻפΤ ()ɤʤȤǤɤʾǤ⤽̡ͤ򸫤Ƥ⤷ȻפΤ ()ۤοͤ⤽̡ͤ򸫤Ƥ⤷ȤΤ () Ȥθ,̡ͤΤߤɤʾǸƤ⤪⤷Ϥοͤ⤪⤷ɾƤ (٤ƹ⤤) 硤ο̡ͤͤ򤪤⤷ȻפäƤΤϡ̡֤ͤ⤷Ȥ褦˳Ū°Ԥ.

Ҥ°ιͤΤ褦ˡͤϤĤ⤹٤ƤװİơΤȤθͽ¬Ƥ櫓ǤϤʤष٤ƤװİǤʤᡤʬηиäƤ̴ط˴ؤμ (̥ޡˤѤƵ°ꤹ롥ʪθͽ¬Ǥ°äƤޤȤ°Υ顼ȤɽŪʤΤʲˤ롥ͤϡ¾ԤΤưθͤݤˡϤξʤɤγŪ°⡤ʤʤɤŪ°ȽǤ䤹Ūʵ°θʥ顼)ȤǡʬΤȤˤʤȡϤξʤɤθ䤹ʤꡤʬѻԤξŪ°򤹤ΤФ԰ټԤξϳŪ°򤹤 (԰ټ-ѻԥХʬθ伺θθ°ˤĤƤϡŪ°ԤϳŪ°Ȥ褦˼ʬԹΤ褤°ԤƤޤŪ ()ХȤޤ¾ͤäƤ餦ꡤʬۤȹͤʤɡ뤳ȤǤäƤ⡤ʬ뤳ȤǤȤ (ȥ븸) ⡤°Υ顼Ǥ롥Τ褦ʵ°Υ顼ХϡҲŪ (ʤ¾ԤޤवޤޤʼҲŪݤ˴ؤƹԤΤ) Τ椬ߤȤƹͤ뤳ȤǤpp. 238-40ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

71

ꥨؤǤϡ缣Ťɬȯ˼ŤԤȤˤɾδ¤ౡ¥ʤ뤳ȤŪȤʤ (ꥨϥե󥹸ǎϢỌ̑)ǤϡʰꥨǸա޻աݷʡںˡ, ѿʤɤ¿郎Ϣʤ鼣šٱ礬Ԥʤ¿ϢȤηʥꥨȤФp. 73ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

72ؽ

ȯã㳲äԤҲŬ뤿ˡäŬˡؤӼ뤳ȤؽȤp. 78ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

73ư溤

ȯŪ˼ʬޤ¾ͤФä԰ޤ뤳ȤǤʤ㳲򡤾ư溤Ȥp. 79ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

73

ܿͤˤȤäơȤƤɤ򲿤餫μʤĴᤷ褦ȤƤ⤦ޤ˽˽ϡʤɤ˻پ褹Ȥ򴶾ĴẤȤp. 79ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

74˳

ҤɤĹǡƤϤμȤδؤ꤬ŬڤǤä˳졤θĹȯã˰ƶڤܤp. 78ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

75Ū转̤Ϥ

Ū转̤Ϥʾ֤ȤϡҤɤ⤬̲顤æʤɡ뤦ǴפȤʤ԰٤ҲϤʤɤʬ˳ؤ֤ȤǤʤޤĹ򤤤p. 78ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

76ե˥

θߤγؽο٤׹ͲˤĤơѻ뤤ɾ뤳ѻɾη̤ˤäơؽˡȯŪĴ뤳Ȥä᥿ǧŪάΰǤ롣ؽ̤Τۤ󥻥󥰾̤ˤƤѤ뤳Ȥp. 232ˡ

ؿؼŵ ǡ١˼ˤ

ʬȤιưŪѲŪѲʤɤ˥뤳򥻥ե˥󥰤Ȥ֡ȤСνŷפ˾ꡤνŤ¬ꡦϿʤɤե˥󥰤Ǥp. 574ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

77ʥƥ269ǡ

ʹ֤ϡ¾ԤΡ֤פξ֤ɤ򤷡̤뤳ȤǤޤҤɤϡ¾ԤΡ֤פξ֤򲿺кˤʤä򤷡̤뤳ȤǤ褦ˤʤΤμʰռȴϢҲưʹ֤ιư̤ˤȤäƤפǤ롥Τ褦ϡǽ顤ѥ󥸡ҥȤΡ֤פǤ뤫ɤθȤơץޥå1978ˤˤäƤϤ줿η̡ѥ󥸡μ¸̤ǡҥȤΡ֤פξ֤Ǥ뤳ȤФ줿ҥȤưʪʰۤʤäưʪ֤ޤơ¾ԤΡ֤פξ֡Ū׹͡տޡǰʤɡˤ򤷿̤ƯŪˡֿפȸƤǤ롥ϡ¾ԤΡ֤פ伫ʤΡ֤פˤĤƤ䡤᥿ǧΡʼʤ̾ǧγưƻ뤷ơɸ˱ä椹ǧΤƯˤȤĻǧȯã餫ˤ뤿νפʲǤ롥̾ȥԥå29Τ褦ʡäǰβꡧǰפޤϡ꡼ȥβפȸƤФ¸̤ơҤɤ⤬¾ԡʥ꡼ˤιͤ修ǰ̤Ǥ뤫ݤĴ٤롥֥꡼ʿʪA) ϥӡ̡оʪX) ʾY) ˤȻפäƤ뤫פ򤿤ͤȡ︳4кޤǤ뤳ȤǤ褦ˤʤ롥ϰ켡ŪȸƤФ롥Фơʣˤꤹ뤳ȤǤ롥ʤ֡ؿʪAоʪXYˤȻפäƤ٤ȿʪBϻפäƤ뤫פȤ褦ҾˤŪȤΤ褦ʲǤΤϡǤ47кˤʤäƤǤpp. 42-3ˡ

ؿ 5ǡ١ؽDzˤ

78Űʥƥ148Ǥʤɡ

ŰȤϡդεǽʤȯã٤ΤߤҤɤФơҲŪ˼ΩǤ褦˼Ȥ༣ŤȶΤȤ̣p. 59ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

Ū㳲˴ؤƤϡˡΧŪ㳲ʡˡŪ㳲ɤΤ褦ʤΤƤ餺ˡΧƤʤϫƯʤ»ܤŪ㳲 () ĴǤϡŪǽξ㳲ȯã (18ޤ) ˤ졤˻پ㤬Ƥ뤿ᡤ餫̤αɬפȤ֤ˤΡפŪǽξ㳲ȽǤȤƤǽؿ70ޤǤȤΤ褦ˎŪ㳲򡤭 ǽؿ70餤ޤ, 18Ф餤ޤǤ˾㳲Ƥ롤 ˻پƤ롤Ȥ3ĤǤȤ館ƤȤ狼롥Ƹ̽ (18̤) , Ū㳲Թ̽ (18аʾ) Ū㳲ǤȽꤵŰĢθդ뤳ȤǤ롥Ū㳲ȽϳƻܸƤ뤿ᡤƻܸˤäŰĢդδϰۤʤp. 285ˡ

ظǧɬȥƥȡ١ʳظץ饹ˤ

79ꥢ˦ʥƥ127ǡˡԤȸƤΤǥޥʡ夲

˥塼ȥꥢ˦ϿзϤ˦Ǥ롥˥塼ϡۤΥ˥塼¡˶ʳ¡ãԤüʺ˦Ǥ롥ꥢ˦ϡ˥˥塼ƱΤδ֤ᡤݸܡŵŪƯ () ǽġp. 36ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

˥塼ٻ˦籺˦ʥꥢ˦ˤȤꥢ˦Ͽк˦10ܤꡤк˦λٻܶͭˤ˥塼ƯƤ롣ꥢ˦ˤ籺˦ȥꥢ)͵籺˦ꥴǥɥꥢ)籺˦ߥꥢˤꡤĹҤܰҤʤɤʬ礹뤳Ȥǿк˦ΰݻ˴ͿƤp. 255ˡ

ظǧǧոǤԹֽƥȡ١ʶǡˤ

ȥη򤷤Ƥꡤк˦ʬ򶡵뤷Ƥ롣

ꥴǥɥк˦μʤʥߥĤ롣

ߥꥢĤк˦ԤȹͤƤ롣

ǾȿΤߡ١ʿǼҡp. 73

80벽æ벽ʥƥ268ǡ

ƱɷϤ򷫤֤ȽȿޤȤ벽ȤʻɷäȿƳȤæ벽Ȥp. 24ˡ

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

81ʪ

Сγ(perception)θˤǤŪˡϡʪŪʻɷ(㤨뤵䲻ˤȿ̤ȤƤγФδطĴ٤뤳ȤǤꡤʪؤȾΤʥեå
ʪؤȤ⤤)Ǥפ¬оݤ硤ĤޤγФꤹǾʪ̤Ǥꡤ٤ϤεտǤ롣γФǤǾɷɷɷ֤ΰ㤤ʬǾȸƤӡʬ硤ʬʬ뤳Ȥ⤢롣򡤻ɷٲκ(JND)뤳Ȥ⤢롣դˡФλɷ㶯ɷȤޤɷ֤ǻɷ㶯٤ȴŪ(PSE)פ¬оݤȤʤ롣ϼ̵Ū˷ޤ櫓ǤϤʤΨŪưʿ¬ؿ)¬ˤϡˡ˸ˡĴˡڤӤѷΡʪŪ¬ˡѤ롣

Сϡ礬ɸɷζ٤㤹롤ʤɸɷRRˤĤƭR/R=C(CϰϤˤΩ뤳Ȥ򼨤Сˡ§)R/RϥСȸƤФ롣ʪؤϻϼԤȤեҥʡϡ򴶳E˳ĥ̤ˤĤ"E=h(dR/R)ΩĤȹͤʬˤäE=hlogR+c(cˤȤطƳE = 0 Ȥʤɷ ꤹE=hlogR/Ȥпطեҥʡˡ§)ˤƴ̤OǤȹͤ뤳ȤǤΤǡʦ=4R),ϹϤʴ̤δȤʤꡤγиˤˤƽפ¬̤Ǥ뤳Ȥʬ롣٥礭ɷؤγ̤Ĵ٤ˤϡɷФγ̤Ū˿Ͳ𤵤ޥ˥塼ɿˡѤ롣ƥ(1957ˤϤˡѤ͡ʴФ¬ꤷ̤ʪ̤Τ٤ؿɽ뤳Ȥ򼨤ƥ󥹤ˡ§)ºݤˤϥեҥʡпˡ§Ȥΰ㤤ϾȤ˶§ȤƻȤʬp. 143ˡ

˸ˡ¸Ԥɷ㶯٤缡ѲγбѲɷ㶯٤(hysteresis)򤱤뤿ᡤ̾Ͼ徺󡤲߷ξԤȯŸȤơѲդǻɷ㶯٤Ϣ³Ū˾徺ߤƼ«볬ˡ(staircase method;岼ˡup-and-down methodȤƤФˤ¿ѤƤ롣ˡǤϡͽ¬ˤ뤿ᡤʣλɷ˿򤼤뤳Ȥ롣ѲŪ˴Ť椷˸ΨޤPEST,QUESTŬŪˡ(adaptivemethod)ƤƤp. 143)


ˡɷζ٤Ѳʤ鷫֤輨γгΨɷ㶯٤δؿȤɽ¬ؿᡤ,JND򻻽Ф롣̾,γФǤ-Ǥʤ礭-ʤɤ趯ȿѤ롣¸üԤͽ¬ǵҴ⤯ΥХ⾯ʤɷ㶯٤ϰϤ¬ͽŪѻŬڤ˷ꤹɬפ롣Ψ뤿¬¿η֤ɬפȤʤ롣Τ¿ʻ֤ȼ¸üԤϫϤפ뤬̤¿p. 144ˡ

ؿؼŵ ǡ١˼ˤ

82뤵ȿγ

Ƥ2λ˦ϡĶˤäƤޤޤ˴٤Ѳ롣ǤŤǤṲ̄ͥʾ֤ȤʤԤλ롢ԤλȸƤ)λλǤϴ٤ΥԡȤʤĹӤۤʤ뤿ᡢ줾ξˤơ뤯γФ뿧ޤѲʥץ륭󥨸)ŰǤޤ뤤ذưȡŪܾ֤Ȥʤ뤬ܤ븽롣θݤϡΤδ㲼ȿΤδپ徺ȤɽƤꡢȸƤ֡ʤȿФβŽȸƤ)p. 72ˡ

ФΥᥫ˥˴ؤ벾ϡȿпȸƤФ2ĤβȤȯŸƤȤϡ֡СĤθŪȿʪ¸ߤ3ȿȹ礻ˤäƤ뿧γФ¸Ȥ벾Ǥ롣ȿпȤϡְСİ첫Ȥɹ뿧Хͥ뤬¸ߤͥ뤴ȤνϤȹ礻ˤäƿФ褦Ȥ벾Ǥ롣Ϻλ¤򡢤ޤȿпϿʤɤοиݤ褯롣
ɤβˤŪǧƤ뤳Ȥ顢ǤξԤۤʤʳˤ礷ʳ⤬ήȤʤäƤp. 73ˡ

ؿظܥ ǡ١ʼ̳ǡˤ

83֡ʱưԤˤγ

㱿ưγС
ưγФϡоݤʪŪ˱ưƤǤʤºݤˤϱưƤʤоݤФƤ롣оݤʪŪ˱ưƤ֤ºݱưȸƤ֡ޤºݤˤϱưƤʤоݤˤĤγФ븫αưưȸƤ֡ºݱưγХᥫ˥ϡؤαưˤΤȿŪ˦¸ߤˤäƤ롣ưФ봶٤ϡưˤäưۤʤꡢҤʽˡľʿԤȤʤp. 76ˡ

ؿظܥ ǡ١ʼ̳ǡˤ

ưʣŻ߱硹󼨤˲ħΰưФƴ뱿ưСưɽѤΰ̸ưϢ³ŪʼºݱưΥŪ˥ץ󥰤ΤǤꡤºݱưƱ͡㼡αưдDZưФȤǤp. 160ˡ

ưĸƱαưʽɷˤ³ŻоݡʥƥȻɷˤ򸫤ȡȿαưγФ롣κפȤƤΤƤ롣ƥȻɷФαưдνϤޤꡤȿνϤŪ礭ʤäȹͤƤ롣Ż߻ɷǤϤʤưޤʥƥȻɷѤƤ⡤ȿαưγФͶƳ롣ޤưΥȥ饹ȸд٤Ū㲼ưŪΥ褦˥ƥȻɷαưѰ̤롣ưʣʳ̤αưݤǤp. 160ˡ

ͶƳưưȿưƸ褦ˡŻߤɷ㤬դαưȿưƸ롣оݴ֤Ūʱư沽褦ȤзϤλȤߤȿǤȹͤp. 161ˡ

ؿؼŵ ǡ١˼ˤ

ԤγС
3γԤγФȸƤ֡2Ū¤ǤΤǡǾϱԤƸ뤿ˤʤ餫μ꤬(Ԥ꤬ˤѤƤȹͤ롣Ԥ꤬ϡΩ˺ξɬפȤξ꤬ñˤƤΩñ꤬̤뤳ȤǤ롣ξ꤬ˤϡξ뺹վʤդˤ롣δϿʿ6cmΥƤꡢоݤ˻碌뤿ˤϡξ¦˲žɬפ롣žưվȸƤ֡ޤդγ١վѡˤ礭ۤɡδƤˤϤ롣Τξ뺹ޤξȸƤ֡Ǿϡդξ뺹Ԥμ꤬ȤƤꡢξԤ礭оݤۤɡ᤯¸ߤƤǧ롣2DZԤ򴶤볨衢ƥ쥪ξ뺹ѤΤǤ롣ñ꤬ˤϡĴᡢŪ꤬ʤɤ¸ߤ롣ĴȤϡˤ徽ΤθߤĴ̣롣ᤤоݤѻۤɡ徽Τϸߤᡢξ֤Ԥ꤬ȤѤƤ롣Ū꤬3αԤ2ʿ̾ˤ3γŪɽȤδطѻԤؽ뤳ȤˤäΩ꤬ǤꡢиŪ꤬ȤƤФ롣ˤϡáʽŤʤ礤ˡˡȩʤˤθۡƤʤɤޤޤp. 75ˡ

84ʪΡγ

̤ˤγФŪ¿ξ硤ʪΤ䥷γФ뤳ȤǤ롣ʪΤ䥷γФ̾äϤɬפʤưŪ˹ԤƤ褦˴뤬ϤоγФ٤ʪΤ䥷бطͤС줬ˤʣʲǤ뤳Ȥʬ롣äˡʪΤϡˤäͿ礭Ѳˤ⤫餺桹ϸΨŪγФǽǤ롣ޤϤʪΤ䤽ִط礭ʼͳ٤ˤ⤫餺ˤû֤ǤΤ˥İǤȤΤƤꡤĶ®ƥȽȸƤФƤ롣

ʪΤγФäƤϡ¸꤬Ƥʪ¸顤ʪΤγФϻ˰¸뤳ȤΤƤ롣Ūˤϡ˴طʤֻγФǤ褦˻פ뤬γФȿ¬ŵŪʻǤٱ䤬롣ޤ¸ȴϢݤȤŪž롣ŪžϡҥȤۤʤ鸫ʪΤΰưȽǤʪΤοŪɽݤ򥢥ʥŪ˲žƤ뤳Ȥ򼨺뤬,äƤϵp. 164ˡ

ؿؼŵ ǡ١˼ˤ

ʲ̤³֤;͵ΤɤǤɤ⡣餯߿ʲФ䤹ΤǤϤʤ

Ūžۤʤ鸫ʪΤΰưȽǤ򤹤ݡʪΤŪ˲žȽǤ뿴Ūѡɤȥåĥ顼ϡΩΤȤ߹碌ʣʻʪΤƱȽǻĤʪΤž㤹뤳Ȥ𤷡ʥŪʿŪɽݤ¸ߤ򼨺ʪΤγ
֤ٱ䤹뤳Ȥ顤γФǤ⿴ŪžԤäƤǽŦ롣ưǡΥʥɽݤȡϢ³ѴξڵȤƤˤϵp. 166ˡ

ؿؼŵ ǡ١˼ˤ

85ϫٱ

㳲Ԥνϫٱξ ϫƯʢ󥯡

ȯã㳲Ԥνϫٱ ϫƯʢ󥯡

ϫܹԻٱϫ³ٱAϫ³ٱB֥ʥ֥׾λʻ˽ФȤդ꤬ݥȤ⡣

----ϸǧջϳ줬äΤ򵭺-------------

86

ˡ˼뤯Ȥ˺׻ٱ(ŵŪˤйͤ)Фȥ꡼(ˬٱ)פȤʤ롥

Ǥϲ򤱤ʤä褦(^_^;)¾ͭ̾ɤǤǤʤäȻפ롣

87Ƚʥƥ103ǡ105ǡ

ȽȽϡ§ȤơȽȽη9̾鹽롥ɾϡޤ¿ˤäƹԤ롥

ο˴ؤƤϽФƤΤ̵ǰʥƥȤˤϿϵܤʤˡܤ٤ޤǤïٶǤƤʤäΤǤϤʤ

88ͽ

кˡ(ʿ28ǯ41ܹ)˴Ťкٱ礹뵡ǽ򶯲뤳ȤŪ
ˡкʥ󥿡֤ʤɡҲˤ뼫ͽɤؤΰռޤäƤ롥ǤȥСʤɤԤƤ롥桤ѿϡ֤ΤÎ伫̤Իٱˤ̶̳ʤɡкľŪĽפôȤ⤢롥

ˡΧɤΤȻפ䥲ȥѡꤵƤä̦꽸ˤϥȥѡ䤦꤬äȵƤ뤬äǤɤǤ롣

86ˡ88ˡظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ޤطľǽå١ʢ󥯡

ÿء3ˡڥ֥롼ץȡۡ8. ؽڤӸ졤2˸νˤ뵡

1ΡϡȤ߹碌̣򰷤

2ΡϡȤ߹碌ʸˡ򰷤

3ΡϡȤͤ䤽ξоݤˤƸդƯ򰷤

4ΡϡǧǽϤɽʸˡȤ館롣

5ΡϡüԤμҲŪ°طܤ롣

ظǧɬȥƥȡ٤

6ΡϡʤۤʤɤˤĤơƻΩƤƸǽ

7Ρϡ쥳ߥ˥ΰĤǡȤгعμȤΤʤǤΤȤ϶ΡϤȤФ롣аäȰۤʤꡤüԤʣʴط䤹

ظǧչɬܥƥ󥹡١ʳظץ饹ˤ

ͭ¤ε§̵¤ʸ򤹤ǽϤΡ8Ϥ򾧤ؼԤΥॹ Chomsk, N.ϡबĸ¿ͤǤΤΡγˤȤʤ褦ʡΡ9ϤŪ¸ߤϤθϤ饹ࡼˡ§ǤΡ10(LAD: language acquisition device) ȹͤp. 169ˡ

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